Since the introduction of aspirin in 1899, and more particularly since the advent of antibiotic "wonder drugs" in the 1940s, society has come to rely on the widespread availability of therapeutic drugs at reasonable prices. It was a tremendous challenge to bring penicillin to market and could not have been done without the simultaneous development of both product and process under the inspired leadership of Howard Florey over a 10 year period starting in the early 1930s, much has changed in drug development, but the timelines remain long, and the obstacles to success remain high.